India and Pakistan Independence Day 2019
The story behind Indian and Pakistani independence!
It all started with the Indian Independence movement in 1857. On a side the early proponents led militant uprisings against British rule, while on the other side the leaders of the Indian National Congress, which was founded in 1885, pushed for more rights for Indians in terms of the vast civil service and land ownership.
Starting from 1920, India started to stand up against the colonizers, when “Mahatma Gandhi” was established as the leader of the Indian independence movement, and who his belief in civil rights and non-violent struggle inspired a generation.
Then in 1942, “The National India Congress” which was founded in 1885 launched the “Quit India” movement. Britain, leading the fight against “Nazism” in the Second World War alongside 2.5 million Indian troops, promised to grant India independence after the war. Following the Battle of Britain, Gandhi said he would not push for India’s self-rule out of the ashes of a destroyed Britain.
However, by the end of the war and with its empire weakened, Britain was unable to resist the overwhelming demand for independence and it was too weak endure anything. Accordingly, both Congress and the Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, dominated elections. Further, Clement Attlee, by now Britain’s prime minister, was a supporter of independence.
Tensions started to rise because of Muhammad Ali Jinnah beliefs, who argued that Muslims should have their own state, which led to dividing British India along broad religious lines. But that was not the end of the tensions, as another problem appeared which was that there were millions of Muslims living in what would become “Hindu-majority India” and huge numbers of “Hindus” and “Sikhs” living in what would be “Muslim-majority Pakistan”.
Consequently, “Sir Cyril Radcliffe,” the British lawyer and Law Lord best known for his role in the partition of British India and who led the “Boundary Commission,” proposed the “Radcliffe Line,” which was a “Notional Division” of the vast country based on simple district majorities. He submitted his plan for both the west and east borders on August 9,1947, just five days before it came into force, and which divided the Indo-Pak subcontinent into two different countries, until Pakistan itself was divided into the West Pakistan and the East Pakistan, which later parted from West Pakistan and became “Bangladesh”.
Therefore, the two countries celebrate on different days because “Lord Mountbatten,” the viceroy of British India, had to attend the Pakistan celebration on August 14th and then travel to Delhi for India’s first Independence Day on August 15.